In 2013, America’s sugar producers publicly endorsed the Zero-for-Zero sugar policy, which would roll back all global sugar subsidies in favor of a free market.

Foreign sugar producers responded by escalating subsidies instead of making smart reforms. Below is a news catalogue of foreign sugar subsidies announced since U.S. producers took the Zero-for-Zero pledge.

“India has decided to build a 3 million tonne stockpile of sugar to soak up excess supply from the domestic market, and grant soft loans worth 44.4 billion rupees ($661.40 million) to help millers expand ethanol output capacity, the food minister said. The government has also fixed a floor price of 29 rupees a kilogram to ensure that retail rates of sugar do not fall further, Ram Vilas Paswan told a news conference after a cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.”

Brazil expects to increase its sugar production by 20 percent through 2030, according to a study by Energy Research Company. The increase comes from a government plan that subsidizes the national bio fuels policy called RenovaBio through the Ministry of Mines and Energy.

“India is likely to provide financial support to cane farmers for produce sold to sugar mills, two government sources said, in a rare move to subsidize the industry which is reeling under a glut and struggling to export because of low global prices.”

The Fiji Sugar Corporations (FSC) received a $2.1 million grant from Government following the signing of an Agreement which will see it invested in farm equipment.”

An Ethiopian government body is tendering to buy up to 100,000 tonnes of white cane sugar for June, July and August delivery.”

“India is considering scrapping the 20 percent export duty on sugar, the country’s food minister said on Friday, as the government tries various ways to lift prices of the sweetener amid expectations of a surge in production this marketing year.”

Pakistan’s sugar industry was demanding a government subsidies as low world prices slowed exports and created a surplus in domestic supplies just as farmers prepared to harvest a bumper crop. Local mills, according to news reports, were struggling to pay farmers for new supply because of the lack of revenue from the decline in exports.

“Morocco’s spending on cooking gas and sugar subsidies reached an equivalent of nearly 700 million U.S. dollars in the first half of 2017, according to official statistics.”

“India, the world’s biggest sugar consumer, is likely to raise import duty on the sweetener to 50 percent from 40 percent in an attempt to restrict cheaper flows of the commodity from overseas, a government official said on Friday.”

Fiji is expecting to grow 2,000 hectares of new sugarcane crop with an aggressive subsidies package that increases spending from $27.5 million to $60 million. The plan includes direct payments to farmers of $15.4 million to offset the cost of fertilizer.”
Fiji Times

“India to forgive billions of dollars of farm debt.”
Financial Times

“China, the world’s biggest sugar importer, said on Monday it will impose hefty penalties on imports of the sweetener to protect its domestic producers… China’s ministry of commerce said it will raise the duty on out-of-quota sugar imports for this fiscal year from 50 percent to 95 percent after its domestic industry was ‘seriously damaged’ by a tide of imports since 2011.”
Financial Times

“Brazil’s government has agreed to reduce farmers’ unpaid tax bills and lower an agricultural tax…in a nod to the politically powerful farm lobby.”

“[India’s] government today decided to extend stock limits on sugar traders by another six months till October 2017 to check sweetener prices.”
The Economic Times

“Azerbaijan beet growers to receive subsidy.”

“[India’s] food ministry has written to the finance ministry to continue the sugar subsidy of Rs 4,500 crore [US $670 million] under the public distribution system.”
The Economic Times

“[Nigerian] import duty for sugar cane and salt will go from 10 per cent to 70 per cent.”

“Sugar millers [in India] seek debt restructuring, price stabilisation fund.”
The Hindu Business Line

“[India’s] government to ‘fix’ prices of pulses, sugar.”
Press Trust of India

“A directive by India’s government to impose limits on sugar mills’ stocks will force the release of 4.8-4.9 million metric tons into the market, 20% more than actual needs, which should lead to oversupply and lower prices.”
Business Standard

“After cotton and corn, China could sell sugar from state stockpiles.”

“[The Komeda Sugar factory] was reconstructed with a $35 million concessional loan from the Indian government through the Export-Import Bank of India. The country’s authorities at the time declared it was securing an additional $24.5 million from the Indian government to construct irrigation dams and plantations, as well as seed capital to out growers to plant sugarcanes.”
Daily Guide

“The government of Morocco spent MAD 1.9 billion (USD 195 million) to subsidise sugar during the first six months of 2016.”
Le Martin

“The $20.7 million allocated in [Fiji’s] 2016-2017 Budget for rehabilitation in the sugar industry is hoped to get crop levels back up as soon as possible. Government allocated $11 million for crop rehabilitation and another $9.7 million for crop fertiliser subsidy $3 million for cane access roads and $0.6 million for the GIS system.”
Fiji Sun

“The [Pakistani] federal government has released Rs 1.625 billion ($15.5 million) for payment of subsidy on sugar export.”
Business Recorder

“India levied a 20 percent duty on sugar exports to prevent further gains in local prices.”

“India seen holding off sugar policy change despite price surge.”

“Brazil said Thailand’s favorable policies towards its sugar sector had the effect of raising the country’s exports as a share of the global market from 12.1 percent to 15.8 percent in the past four years.”

“India is planning to dump a mountain of sugar on the world, and traders say the controversial move could knock the wind out of a global sugar market that is already grappling with a glut.”
Wall Street Journal

“The Thai government controls its country’s sugar production and distribution by subsidizing its farmers, spending more than $1 billion a year while requiring them to export up to 80% of the production.”
Wall Street Journal

“Brazil spends more than $2.5 billion on supporting sugar production through loan programs.”
Wall Street Journal

“The [Pakistani] government on Monday approved Rs6.5 billion [$62 million] in subsidy on the export of half a million tons of sugar.”
The Express Tribune

“Sugar mills are prioritising exports of low-quality white sugar and could focus on raw sugar exports early in 2016 after [India’s] government confirmed it will pay a cane production subsidy.”

“India approves $173 million subsidy for sugar cane growers.”

“Egypt will continue to subsidize sugar farmers at 400 Egyptian pounds [$50] per ton.”

“The Narendra Modi government is likely to announce a direct cash subsidy for [India’s] sugarcane growers, a significant farm-policy decision amid a lingering agrarian crisis that has roiled the rural economy.”
Hindustan Times

“Food Ministry proposes cane production-linked subsidy to [India’s] farmers.”
The Economic Times

“Sugar mills in India will get 60 billion rupees ($940 million) in interest-free loans from banks to help them partly clear dues to cane farmers.”

“Brazilian sugarcane producers are gathering evidence to persuade their government to launch a trade case against India and Thailand over subsidies, highlighting growing global trade tensions stoked by the plunge in commodity prices.”
Hellenic Shipping News

“The Economic Coordination Committee of the Cabinet on Thursday approved an increase in the amount of subsidy on sugar [in Pakistan] from [3 cents to 5 cents] per kg.”
Express Tribune

“Maharashtra: Sugar mills to get [$16/per ton] export subsidy.”
India Express

“[Dominican Republic] govt. funding aims to recoup fallow sugar cane lands.”
Dominican Today

“$3 billion of unpaid bills fail to deter India sugar farmers.”

“[India’s] govt. hikes sugar import duty; excise duty on ethanol scrapped.”
DNA India

“Egypt is considering a 20 percent tariff on white sugar imports as it bolsters its own sugar industry with a subsidised export push, a ministerial statement and a filing at the World Trade Organization said on Thursday.”

“…[India’s sugar industry] leaders say that the [federal government] should create sugar buffer stocks, export subsidy on white sugar and provide direct subsidy to farmers rather than sugar mills.”
The Economic Times

“The state government has announced a Rs 2,000 crore [$320 million] package for [India’s] sugar factories and this will help the factories pay the dues of sugarcane farmers…”
The Times of India

“M’rashtra announces sugar export subsidy of Rs 1,000 [$16] per tonne.”
Business Standard

“Recently, the [Pakistani] government imposed regulatory duty on the import of sugar and wheat as well.”

“Despite subsidy, [India’s] sugar exports fail to pick up.”
The Hindu

“Life is far from sweet for some top sugar-producing nations, as a global glut combined with a collapse in the Brazilian real, the currency of the world’s largest producer, has crashed the international price of the sweetener to a six-year low.”
Wall Street Journal

“The world has never been so awash in sugar. Just as cane harvests expand in India and Thailand, farmers in Brazil, the world’s largest producer, are ramping up exports to take advantage of a tumble in the exchange rate that has swelled their profit margins.”

“Faced with huge financial crisis, [India’s] sugar industry today demanded that the government give exports subsidy on white sweetener, create buffer stock of 2 million tonnes and also restructure millers’ debt.”
The Hindu

“The State Bank on Thursday issued the mechanism for authorised dealers (AD) [in Pakistan] to process cases of eligible sugar mills for cash subsidy against the export of sugar.”

“[India’s] Ministry allows use of sugar development fund to incentivise raw sugar exports…Prior to the amendment, the Sugar Development Fund was used for giving loans to facilitate rehabilitation and modernisation of any sugar factory…”
Business Standard

“Pakistan has signed deals to export 250,000 tonnes of sugar, after the government approved in December a subsidy of $100 a tonne for overseas sales of 650,000 tonnes of the sweetener lying with its mills, a top industry official said.”
ARY News

“China’s Finance Ministry said the country will spend 154.6 billion yuan ($24.66 billion) on stockpiling grains, edible oils and other materials in 2015, a rise of 33 percent on the year.”

“After the central government offered Rs4,000 subsidy on every tonne of raw sugar to be exported, the Maharashtra government has also decided to give Rs1,000 subsidy on an equal amount of the produce. Hence, the total subsidy per tonne of sugar exported will now be Rs5,000 ($80).”
DNA India

“India last week decided to give mills a subsidy of 4,000 rupees ($64) a tonne for exports…India’s top sugar-producing state of Maharashtra is considering an extra 1,000 rupees ($16) per tonne subsidy for exports of raw sugar.”

“India’s government okays raw sugar export subsidy.”
Business Standard

“But earlier this month, officials signaled they intend to apply some of the savings to prop up Indonesia’s biofuel industry, which turns palm oil and sugar cane into biodiesel and ethanol. According to Energy and Mineral Resources Minister Sudirman Said, the target subsidy for the current year will by 19.4 trillion rupiah ($1.53 billion), or more than six times last year’s figure.”

“Beijing scrapped its cotton and soybean stockpile schemes last year, switching to direct subsidies to farmers to cover the gap between a target price and the market price. However, it kept the stockpile policy for grain, sugar and rapeseed… China will try to control sugar imports by requiring buyers to register shipments in excess of quotas, which would allow the government to monitor the flow of cheap imports more closely.”

“China will give priority to growers of key staple crops as well as cotton and sugar under changes to its farm machinery subsidy scheme, as it seeks to guarantee food self-sufficiency amid a declining rural workforce, its top newspaper said.”

“[T]he total cost of the subsidy amounting to Rs 6.5 billion [$64 million] would be borne by the Federal [Pakistani] and the respective Provincial Governments as per sugar mills, location on 50:50 sharing basis.”

“Brazil’s struggling sugar and ethanol mills got more good news on Monday after the government granted an expected increase in the national blend of the biofuel in gasoline to 27 percent on Feb. 15 from the current 25 percent, industry officials said.”

[India’s] sugar industry has made a fresh pitch for extending the controversial export subsidy on raw sugar…While the cabinet is expected to increase the subsidy to Rs 4,000 [$64] a tonne, from Rs 3,371 [$54] a tonne, next week, the powerful sugar lobby is also seeking a fresh loan restructuring package despite managing to extract major concessions on bank loans earlier.
The Times of India

“Now, state governments [in India] will have the flexibility to fix the retail price of sugar…After decontrol of the sugar sector in April 2013, state governments have been asked to buy sugar from the open market to meet the demand under the public distribution system (PDS). The Centre has been subsidizing such state purchases…”
The Economic Times

“[T]he government in top grower Brazil raised taxes on gasoline.  The move, announced Monday, will likely mean higher prices at the pump for Brazilian drivers, who may then opt to buy more [sugarcane] ethanol.”
Wall Street Journal

“India’s cabinet could soon approve an increase in the raw sugar subsidy paid to mills to about 4,000 rupees [$64] per tonne as it looks to cut large stockpiles, two government sources with direct knowledge of the matter told Reuters.”

“The Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of the cabinet [of Pakistan] has approved a subsidy of Rs10 per kilogram on export of 650,000 tons of sugar [converts to nearly $65 million].”
Pakistan Agriculture Research

“Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA) president A Vellayan said…government must take all possible steps to ensure that no quantity of sugar gets imported. “That’s why we are demanding 40% increase in import duty…”
The Times of India

“Sugar prices under pressure over Brazilian dumping.”
The Financial Express

“Sugar stocks shoot up as [India’s] government fixes price for ethanol.”
The Economic Times

“The government has offered to forgive 350 billion rupees [$5.6 billion] in agricultural loans, according to a report seen by Bloomberg News…. Two states [In India] are following a 2008 precedent, when the central government forgave 710 billion rupees [$11.4 billion] in loans…”

“African nations import about 5 million metric tons of sugar every year, from countries such as Brazil, China and India. The imports—generally heavily subsidized—are sold at prices lower than the cost of producing sugar locally, prompting African countries to shun sugar from their neighbors.”
Wall Street Journal

“They are mired in losses because the state has mandated such a high price for sugarcane that running the mills has become uneconomical.
Business Standard

“[Thailand’s] military government wants to increase sugarcane planting at a time when world sugar prices are at a seven-month low because of a supply glut.”
Bangkok Post

“UP Cabinet approves additional subsidy for [India’s] sugar mills.”
The Times of India

“[India’s] raw sugar export subsidy for August-September has been increased to Rs 3,371 [$54] per tonne, up from Rs 3,300 [$53] in June-July, after the industry lobbied for its continuation.”
The Economic Times

“The [Chinese] government has stockpiled sugar for many years at above-market prices to support domestic farmers…”
China Daily

“Several countries, ranging from Australia to Brazil, have raised questions over the subsidy offered by [India’s] government as the payment, increases the competitiveness of Indian sugar in the international markets, and impacts prices.”
The Times of India

“Tanzania: local sugar industries need protection”
Tanzania Daily News

“Brazil holds the key to the world sugar price as the South American country is the leading player in the sugar market, accounting for more than 20 per cent of world supply and almost 60 per cent of global sugar trade flows.”
Financial Times

“Brazil’s National Bank of Social and Economic Development (BNDES) on Monday unveiled PAISS Agricola, a new incentive program for innovation in Brazil’s sugar-energy sector that could potentially make available 1.48 billion reals (US$620 million) of investment resources from 2014 to 2018.”

“India approves sugar export subsidy opposed by Brazil, Thailand.”

“India, the world’s biggest sugar producer after Brazil, will subsidize shipments of raw sweetener to ease a domestic glut and help mills clear arrears of about $422 million to farmers before elections scheduled by May.”

“This month, in a tortuous spiral of subsidies, [India’s] government agreed to give mills interest-free loans to help pay government-set prices to cane growers… Now, trade and government officials say New Delhi could announce tax breaks for mills.”

“Cabinet okays guidelines for interest-free loan to [India’s] sugar mills.”
The Times of India

“China may phase out its stockpiling program and partially replace it with direct subsidies to cane and beet farmers as early as the crop starting October 2014, Zhao Lihua, a director at the economy and trade division of the National Development and Reform Commission, said last month.”

“India on Tuesday raised its import tax on sugar to 15% from 10% with immediate effect, aiming to stem a recent flood of cheap imports because of low global prices.”
Wall Street Journal

“Agricultural powerhouse Brazil increased its farm budget for 2013/14 by nearly a fifth on Tuesday to 136 billion reais ($64 billion) as its farming sector thrives… The annually-revised farming budget has grown about six-fold in a decade.”

“Brazil’s government will offer 125 million Brazilian reais ($65.2 million) in subsidies to sugarcane producers in the drought-stricken northeaster region, Deputy Finance Minister Dyogo de Olivera said Thursday.”
Dow Jones

“Brazil throws troubled ethanol industry tax breaks, credit…[the plan] will cost the government 970 million reais ($480.95 million) in tax revenue this year.”